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Financial Vocabulary
Financial Vocabulary
Bid price
The highest price an investor is willing to pay to buy a security. Basically, this is the available price at which an investor can sell shares of stock.
Commission
The basic fee paid to a broker to execute a trade, based on number of shares or bonds.
Day order
An order to buy or sell a security that automatically expires if it cannot be executed on the day it is entered.
Day trading
Refers to establishing and liquidating the same position(s) within one day's trading.
Derivative
A financial instrument whose value is based on, or "derived" from, another security, or index. Examples of derivatives are warrants, futures and options contracts.
Dividend
The portion of a company's profit paid to common and preferred shareholders.
Earnings per share
EPS, as it is called, is a company's profit earnings divided by its number of outstanding shares.
Execution
The process of the completion of an order to buy/ sell securities.
Exercise price
The price at which the underlying future or options contract may be bought or sold.
Expiration date
The last day (in the case of American-style) or the only day (in the case of European-style) on which an option may be exercised.
Fixed Income
Securities issued by governments or corporations, which pay a fixed coupon at regular intervals and repay principal on maturity.
Initial public offering (IPO)
A company's first sale of shares to the public.
Listed stocks
Stocks that are traded on an exchange.
Market value
The current value of a security.
Net Asset Value (NAV):
The current market worth of a mutual fund's share. A fund's net asset value is calculated daily by taking the funds total assets, securities, cash and any accrued earnings, deducting liabilities, and dividing the remainder by the number of shares outstanding.
Net offset
Elimination of a long or short position by doing an opposite transaction.
Odd lot
A parcel of shares that is below the minimum board lot necessary to be traded.
Offer price
The price at which an investor is willing to sell. Basically, this is the available price at which an investor can buy shares of stock.
Opening price
The price at which a security commences trading at the opening of a trading day.
Portfolio
A collection of investment holdings, real and/or financial.
Price-Earnings Ratio (PE Ratio)
A stock's market price divided by its current or estimated future earnings per share. The PE Ratio is used by investors as a fundamental measure of the attractiveness of a particular security versus all other securities. The lower the ratio relative to the average of the share market, the lower the market's profit growth expectations.
Quotation
Often shortened to "quote" and also referred to as bid-asked. It is the bid and offered prices a dealer is willing to buy or sell at.
Settlement
When payment is made for a trade.
Settlement date
The date on which a securities transaction is finalised and payment is made.
Spread
The difference between bid and ask prices of a stock or other security.
Warrant
A security giving the holder the right to purchase shares of stock at a stipulated price within a specified time span, or in some cases, indefinitely. Warrants are sometimes attached to other securities as an added purchase inducement and may be traded separately after issue. They are similar to call options.
Yield
Current annual income from a fund or other investment, expressed current income (interest or dividends) paid by a fund, expressed as a percentage of the investment's price.